How to design Motion Detector Smart Street Lights System.

Motion Detecting Street Lights

The purpose of Motion Detector Smart Street Lights System project is to control the amount of energy utilized when illuminating the pathways for motorist and pedestrians alike during night time. At night, a lot of energy is usually used to keep the street lights on all through the night. Most of these times, the illumination on these paths are not necessarily needed as there will be nobody using the roads. The Motion Detector Smart Street Lights System project thus; is smart enough   to notice the movement of objects around it and lights up the path so that people could see properly.

This Motion Detector Smart Street Lights System project makes use of the Atmega328P-PU microcontroller, a motion detector sensor like PIR sensor, and some AC light bulbs to sense the presence of pedestrians and illuminate their paths for them. For this project, we are going to be needing the following materials:

12v solid state relays………………………………………………………3pcs

Atmega328P-PU microcontroller…………………………………….1pcs

AC light bulbs 220/240V 200W………………………………………3pcs

12V power adapter………………………………………………………1pcs

5V or 12V 3-channel relay module……………………………………………….1pcs

To begin, we need to construct our MCU board, read this previous post of ours to know how to build your own working standalone Arduino board. It would be very wise however, to make sure that the power supply unit or DC supply adapter outputs enough current to power all the parts that runs on DC.

Circuit diagram of the Project.

Motion detector smart street lights circuit diagram
Motion detector smart street lights circuit diagram

From the circuit above, the power supply is producing 5V 1A to the MCU, PIR sensors and the 5V 3-channel relay module.

The MCU board is configured to control the 3-channel relay module through input/output (IO) pins 5, 6 and 7 respectively. While the PIR sensors are controlled via IO pins 8, 9 and 10 respectively.

The Light dependent resistor (LDR) which we used here as optical sensor to differentiate when it is dark and when it is daytime is connected to analog input pin 0 (A0) but voltage divider theorem (since the LDR is connected in series with a 10kΩ fixed resistor. The whole idea for this connection is to measure the rate of change analog voltage as the resistance of the LDR changes due to amount of Light on its surface. The type of LDR used in this Motion Detector Smart Street Light System project has negative coefficient of resistance; which means that as the amount of light on its flat surface increases, the resistance across it decreases.

The Motion Detector Smart Street Light System project would achieve its objective only when it is dark and when there is motion around it that needs to use the illumination it would give out. Hence, we write our program on the Arduino platform again as:

//Arduino source-code for Motion Detector Smart Street Light System project//
//the time we give the sensor to calibrate (10-60 secs according to the datasheet)
int calibrationTime = 10;    

//the time when the sensor outputs a low impulse
long unsigned int lowIn;        
//the amount of milliseconds the sensor has to be low 
//before we assume all motion has stopped
long unsigned int pause = 200;  

boolean lockLow = true;
boolean takeLowTime; 

//the digital pin connected to the PIR sensor's output
int pirPin1 = 10; 
int pirPin2 = 11;
int pirPin3 = 12;
int relay1 = 7;
int relay2 = 8;
int relay3 = 9;
int LDRVcc = 6;


void setup() {
/*we declare the input and output pins of the sensors 
and actuators connected to d MCU */

  pinMode(pirPin1, INPUT);
  pinMode(pirPin2, INPUT);
  pinMode(pirPin3, INPUT);
  pinMode(relay1, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(relay2, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(relay3, OUTPUT);
pinMode(LDRVcc, OUTPUT);

//we wanted the LDR to kick start when the MCU is up and running, 
//hence, we energized with one of the IO pins of the MCU.
//using a HIGH command
 digitalWrite(LDRVcc, HIGH);
//we start the serial monitor to see the readings of the sensors
 Serial.begin(9600); 
 //give the PIR sensor some time to calibrate
  Serial.print("calibrating sensor ");
//for the calibration sequence that is displaying, we used a for loop
    for(int i = 0; i < calibrationTime; i++){
      Serial.print(".");
      delay(50);
}
}

 
 void loop(){
  //We start reading signals from the LDR connected to analog pin 0.
  int lightSense = analogRead(0);
//we print these readings on the serial monitor
  Serial.println(lightSense);
//with a delay of 0.5s between each value displayed
  delay(500);
//Using a simple if-statement we 
  if(lightSense <= 300) {
    if(digitalRead(pirPin1) == HIGH){
//the led visualizes the sensors output pin state
       digitalWrite(relay1, HIGH);   
       if(lockLow){  
         //makes sure we wait for a transition to LOW before any further output is made:
         lockLow = false;            
        
         }         
         takeLowTime = true;
    }

else if(digitalRead(pirPin1) == LOW){       
       digitalWrite(relay1, LOW);  //the led visualizes the sensors output pin state

       if(takeLowTime){
        lowIn = millis();          //save the time of the transition from high to LOW
        takeLowTime = false;       //make sure this is only done at the start of a LOW phase
        }
       //if the sensor is low for more than the given pause, 
       //we assume that no more motion is going to happen
       if(!lockLow &amp;&amp; millis() - lowIn > pause){  
           //makes sure this block of code is only executed again after 
           //a new motion sequence has been detected
           lockLow = true;                        
           
           }
       }

       if(digitalRead(pirPin2) == HIGH){
       digitalWrite(relay2, HIGH);   //the led visualizes the sensors output pin state
       if(lockLow){  
         //makes sure we wait for a transition to LOW before any further output is made:
         lockLow = false;            
        
         }         
         takeLowTime = true;

    }
else if(digitalRead(pirPin2) == LOW){  
//the led visualizes the sensors output pin state
       digitalWrite(relay2, LOW);  
       if(takeLowTime){
//save the time of the transition from high to LOW
        lowIn = millis();      
//make sure this is only done at the start of a LOW phase    
        takeLowTime = false;               }
       //if the sensor is low for more than the given pause, 
       //we assume that no more motion is going to happen
       if(!lockLow &amp;&amp; millis() - lowIn > pause){  
           //makes sure this block of code is only executed again after 
           //a new motion sequence has been detected
           lockLow = true;                        
           
           }
       }

if(digitalRead(pirPin3) == HIGH){
       digitalWrite(relay3, HIGH);   //the led visualizes the sensors output pin state
       if(lockLow){  
         //makes sure we wait for a transition to LOW before any further output is made:
         lockLow = false;            
        Serial.println("---");
        Serial.print("motion detected at ");
         Serial.print(millis()/1000);
         Serial.println(" sec"); 
         delay(50);
         }         
         takeLowTime = true;

    }

else if(digitalRead(pirPin3) == LOW){  
//the led visualizes the sensors output pin state     
       digitalWrite(relay3, LOW);  

       if(takeLowTime){
//save the time of the transition from high to LOW
        lowIn = millis();   
//make sure this is only done at the start of a LOW phase       
        takeLowTime = false;       
        }
       //if the sensor is low for more than the given pause, 
       //we assume that no more motion is going to happen
       if(!lockLow &amp;&amp; millis() - lowIn > pause){  
           //makes sure this block of code is only executed again after 
           //a new motion sequence has been detected
           lockLow = true;                        
           
           }
       }
    delay(50);
  }
   
  
  if (lightSense >= 301 ) {
    digitalWrite(relay1, LOW);
    digitalWrite(relay2, LOW);
    digitalWrite(relay3, LOW);
    if(takeLowTime){
//save the time of the transition from high to LOW
        lowIn = millis(); 
//make sure this is only done at the start of a LOW phase         
        takeLowTime = false;       
        }
       //if the sensor is low for more than the given pause, 
       //we assume that no more motion is going to happen
       if(!lockLow &amp;&amp; millis() - lowIn > pause){  
           //makes sure this block of code is only executed again after 
           //a new motion sequence has been detected
           lockLow = true;                        
           

  }

  }
 }

Further explanation of Sketch:

We declared all our variables from line 3 through line 21, the calibration time  for the PIR sensors was to 10 seconds according to the datasheet of the product. But the sensor emits a pulse and waits for an obstacle to reflect it by cutting into its line of projection. So we used a long variable unsigned to denote this. In the loop function, we have already noticed that during dark, the LDR displays values that are below 300 and when it experiences sufficient amount across its surface, its values rises way above 300. Using the if-statement we made a comparison as regards to when the latter following lines would be executed. The rest of the algorithm used for the Motion Detector Smart Street Lights System project are explained using comment line. And notice there is a repeated pattern for the three PIRs.

Connecting the AC lamps:

The AC bulbs are connected as shown in the circuit diagram. The relays: relay1, relay2 and relay3 acts as the bridge between the DC and the AC voltage. In other words for the AC bulbs to be turned on, the relays must be energized. The relay energizing voltages were rated 5V but 12V solid state relays are recommended to avoid arching between switching poles of the relays and burning out the filaments of the tungsten bulbs.  A better choice would to go for energy saving lamps that uses AC to DC converters.

The working video is shown in the embed youTube below.

The working video of the Motion Detector Smart Street Lights System project

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