What is Genomics?

focuses on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. It is an interdisciplinary area of biology. A genome is an organism’s whole set of DNA, which includes all of its genes and the three-dimensional, hierarchical structural organization they are organized into.

Genomic science tries to characterize and quantify all of an organism’s genes, their interactions, and influences on the organism as a whole, as opposed to genetics, which studies specific genes and their functions in inheritance. Enzymes and messenger molecules can work with genes to direct the creation of proteins. Proteins, in turn, build up bodily tissues and organs, regulate chemical processes, and transmit messages between cells.


In order to assemble and evaluate the structure and function of complete genomes, genomics also entails the sequencing and analysis of genomes using high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics. Systems biology and discovery-based research have undergone a revolution as a result of advances in genomics, making it easier to comprehend even the most intricate biological systems, like the brain.

Types Of Genomics

1.Structural Genomics :

DNA sequencing, sequence assembly, sequence organization, and sequence management are all topics covered by structural genomics. In essence, it is the initial phase of genome analysis, which entails creating high-resolution genetic, physical, or sequence maps of the organism.

An organism’s ultimate physical map is its entire DNA sequence. The idea of structural genomics has reached a transitional stage as a result of the quick development of DNA technology and the completion of numerous genome sequencing initiatives over the past few years.

The systematic determination of the 3D structure of proteins present in living cells is now also a part of it. Because every group of people has different proteins, there would also be different genome sequences.

2.Functional Genomics :

The next stage is to reconstruct genome sequences and determine the function of the genes using the data from structural genomics. This knowledge also supports the design of an experiment to determine the roles that a particular genome plays. The field of biological research has expanded thanks to the functional genomics approach.


This approach is based on the methodical examination of a single gene or protein up to all genes or proteins. Therefore, the functional genomics is characterized by large-scale experimental techniques and statistically analysed/computed outcomes. As a result, the novel knowledge about the genome is provided by functional genomics.

This makes it simpler to comprehend how genes work, how proteins function, and how proteins interact. Scientists are now discovering a plethora of information about this hidden tale because to the advancements in proteomics and microarray technology.

These two methods made it possible to investigate the simultaneous activities of every gene expressed in a cell or tissue under various environmental conditions, such as temperature, pH, etc.

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